Vigilant III - History

Vigilant III  - History

Vigilant III

(MB: t. 41; 1. 72'0"; b. 14'0"; dr. 3'8"; cpl. 14; a. 1 1-pdr., 1 mg., 4 dc.)

The third Vigilant (SP-406) was a motorboat designed by Charles D. Mower, built in 1909 by Henry L. Blatz, of Philadelphia, Pa.; and originally named Marguerite II. Acquired by the Navy from E. B. Smith, of Philadelphia, Vigilant was commissioned on 19 May 1917 at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, Ens. John B. Yarnall, USNRF, in command.

The boat proceeded from Philadelphia to Essington, Pa., on 28 May for installation of armament, loaded ammunition at Fort Mifflin on 5 June and, two days later, reported to the 4th Naval District. Throughout the remainder of World War I, Vigilant patrolled the Delaware River and the coastal waters of the Middle Atlantic States, ranging from Atlantic City, N.J., to the mouth of he Chesapeake Bay. She remained alert to detect any U-boats which entered her patrol area as she carried messages, men, and mail to ships and stations within the 4th Naval District. Occasionally, she ventured out to sea to search for survivors of torpedoed merchantmen, as she did on 9 June 1918 when a U-boat had sunk SS Del Rio.

After the armistice ended hostilities, Vigilant proceeded to Philadelphia early in December for inactivation. She was decommissioned there on Christmas Eve 1918 and was returned to her owner.


Armor - Vigil The Longest Night

Armor in Vigil: The Longest Night is an equipment category in the game, it is divided into five different groups that provide defensive properties and changes the statistical value of the game's protagonist, Leila. Players can find various pieces of Helms, Masks, Clothes, Gloves, and Boots that can either be equipped as a whole to its respective set or randomly. Not only does each armor piece grant buffs, but it also changes the physical appearance of the protagonist, armor pieces can be obtained in different ways, such as by looting chests, buying from merchants, dropped by killed Enemies or Bosses, and are acquired as a reward for completing a Quest. Armor can be upgraded.

This page covers a list of all the Armor Sets that can be found in the game. See Unique Armor for pieces that aren't a part of a set.


Vigilant

watchful, vigilant, wide-awake, alert mean being on the lookout especially for danger or opportunity. watchful is the least explicit term. the watchful eye of the department supervisor vigilant suggests intense, unremitting, wary watchfulness. eternally vigilant in the safeguarding of democracy wide-awake applies to watchfulness for opportunities and developments more often than dangers. wide-awake companies latched onto the new technology alert stresses readiness or promptness in meeting danger or in seizing opportunity. alert traders anticipated the stock market's slide


Quests [ edit | edit source ]

"Excuse me, but do you know anything about this house? Seen anyone enter or leave?"

Why are you asking? No, I haven't. "Seems no one in this city has." I'm not sure. "Damn. It's like everyone in this city has amnesia." "I'm with the Vigil of Stendarr. We believe this house might have been used for Daedra worship. Evil rites and so forth." Do you need any help? "I was actually just about to head on inside. Be good to have someone watch my back. Follow me, and keep your eyes open. Daedra are powerful creatures and tricksters. Never know what you'll find." Sorry. I don't know anything. "Thank you for your time."

"Fresh food. No wood rot on the furniture. Someone's been here. Recently. But the people I asked say no one enters or leaves. Wait. Did you hear that? I think it came this way. That's it. Something's inside the house. Come on, we're getting to the bottom of this. Come out! We know you're here! There's another door. See if you can get it open."

"Stendarr's Mercy! This isn't an ordinary Daedra. We have to get help."
"You first, come on. Let's go."
"We're getting out of here, now!"


There are two pillars to CACl’s culture. The first is Character – our commitment to ethics and integrity in how we conduct business and treat one another. The second is Innovation – our dedication to advancement and excellence in all we do.

We deliver value through our distinctive offerings and our customer relationships. Quality is ingrained in our solutions and services.


Sirius in Popular Culture

Direct references to Sirius in popular culture are too many to enumerate (e.g. see the name and the logo of the most important satellite radio in the world). A more interesting aspect of popular culture to analyze are the coded references to Sirius. Important movies have indeed made veiled yet profound references to the dog star (apparently intended to those “in the know”), where the star plays the role it was always given by the Mysteries: as an initiator and a divine teacher. Here are some examples.

In Disney’s Pinocchio, based on a story written by Freemason Carlo Collodi, Gepetto prays to the brightest star in the sky to have a “real boy”. The Blue Fairy (her color is a reference to Sirius’ light-blue glow) then descends from the heavens to give life to Pinocchio. Throughout the marionette’s quest to become a boy (an allegory for esoteric initiation), the Blue Fairy guides Pinocchio towards the “right path”. Sirius is therefore represented as a source of life, a guide, and a teacher. (For more information see the article entitled The Esoteric Interpretation of Pinocchio).

The theme song of the movie Pinocchio is also an ode to Sirius.

When you wish upon a star, makes no difference who you are
Anything your heart desires will come to you

If your heart is in your dreams, no request is too extreme
When you wish upon a star as dreamers do

(Fate is kind, she brings to those who love
The sweet fulfillment of their secret longing)

Like a bolt out of the blue, fate steps in and sees you thru
When you wish upon a star, your dreams come true

In Harry Potter, the character named Sirius Black is most likely a reference to Sirius B. (the “darker” star of Sirius’ binary system). He is Harry Potter’s godfather, which makes Sirius, once again, a teacher and a guide. The wizard can turn into a big black dog, another link with the “dog star”.

In the Truman Show, a spotlight – used to imitate the light of a star in Truman’s fake world – falls from the sky and nearly hits him. The label on the spotlight identifies it as Sirius. Truman’s encounter with Sirius gives him a glimpse of “true knowledge” and prompts his quest for truth. Sirius is, therefore, the “star of initiation”. It caused Truman to realize the limitations of his studio world (our material world) and lead him to freedom (spiritual emancipation).


List [ edit | edit source ]

The table below summarizes the abilities. For technologies and improvements specific to an ability, the table only includes the root of a technology branch or base of an improvement progression.

  • Can immediately colonize Unrecognized icon name Aquatic World s, with no penalty
  • Can terraform 1 extra water tile each technology age
  • Converted to the Aquaticrace type by

+10 Unrecognized icon name Research upon arriving at an anomaly

  • Enables Unrecognized icon name Xeno Mysticism , Unrecognized icon name Inherent Talent , and Unrecognized icon name Precursor Traditions technologies
  • Enables the Unrecognized icon name Biosphere Manipulator improvement
  • +2 Unrecognized icon name Influence
  • Receive +100 Unrecognized icon name Research every time an ideological trait is unlocked
  • Enables Unrecognized icon name Defensive Meditation technology
  • Enables Unrecognized icon name Healing Pools , Unrecognized icon name Champion's Temple , Unrecognized icon name Shrine of Tandis , Unrecognized icon name Drathian Temple , Unrecognized icon name Shrine of the Mithrilar , and Unrecognized icon name Precursor Souvenir Shop improvements
  • Disables the Unrecognized icon name Entertainment Center improvement
  • +2500 Unrecognized icon name Credits upon conquering a planet
  • +1 Unrecognized icon name Ship Construction
  • +25% Unrecognized icon name Administrators
  • +4 Unrecognized icon name Administrators
  • +100 Unrecognized icon name Influence Growth upon unlocking an ideology (bugged)

+5 Unrecognized icon name Ship Range

+1 Unrecognized icon name Diplomacy Bonus

  • Enables Unrecognized icon name Majesty technology
  • Enables Unrecognized icon name Galactic Council improvement
  • Starts with warship Jeff
  • Enables Unrecognized icon name Temple of Jeff improvement
  • Enables Unrecognized icon name Spore Weapon technology
  • Enables Unrecognized icon name Inspiration Extractor , Unrecognized icon name Temple of Despair , Unrecognized icon name Monument of the Final War , Unrecognized icon name Eulogy of the Fallen , Unrecognized icon name Grave of Lessers , Unrecognized icon name Shrine of A'Aghohl improvements
  • Enables the Unrecognized icon name Work Camp (Korath) improvement
  • Disables Unrecognized icon name Galactic Mainframe , Unrecognized icon name Supply Depot improvements
  • Can immediately colonize Unrecognized icon name Toxic World s
    • +10% Unrecognized icon name Raw Production , +25% Unrecognized icon name Research
    • +25% Unrecognized icon name Resistance
    • Start with Unrecognized icon name War College technology

    +1 Unrecognized icon name Morale

    • Enables Unrecognized icon name Xeno Anthropology tech tree
    • Enables Unrecognized icon name Data Center improvement
    • Starts with Unrecognized icon name Zero Gravity Construction technology
    • Starts with Unrecognized icon name Constructor

    +2 Unrecognized icon name Morale for every civilization that loves them (up to a maximum of +10)

    • Eat Unrecognized icon name Durantium instead of Unrecognized icon name Food
    • Can immediately colonize Unrecognized icon name Frozen World s
      • +10% Unrecognized icon name Raw Production , +35% Unrecognized icon name Research , +20% Unrecognized icon name Influence Growth
      • +10% Unrecognized icon name Raw Production , +50% Unrecognized icon name Social Construction
      • +15 for the dominant ideology upon conquering a planet
      • Can immediately train the Unrecognized icon name Slave Master
      • Disables Unrecognized icon name Food Distribution technology
      • Enables Unrecognized icon name Garrison , Unrecognized icon name Work Camp , Unrecognized icon name Slave Pit , Unrecognized icon name Research Chamber , and Unrecognized icon name Fighting Pit improvement lines
      • Disables Unrecognized icon name Computer Core , Unrecognized icon name Central Bank , Unrecognized icon name Starport , Unrecognized icon name Space Elevator , Unrecognized icon name Supply Depot , Unrecognized icon name Factory , Unrecognized icon name Xeno Research Laboratory , Unrecognized icon name Discovery Sphere , Unrecognized icon name Technological Capital , Unrecognized icon name Entertainment Center , Unrecognized icon name Virtual Vacation improvements
      • Starts with Unrecognized icon name Espionage technology
      • Enables the Unrecognized icon name Spider
      • All starbases get the first module free
      • All ships are immune to nebulae
      • No free starbase module with
      • Enables Unrecognized icon name Hyperion Logistics System , Unrecognized icon name Hyperion Shipyard , Unrecognized icon name Hyperion Shrinker , Unrecognized icon name Hyperion Supply System , Unrecognized icon name Hyperion Sensor System improvement
      • Disables Unrecognized icon name Food and natural Unrecognized icon name Growth instead constructs Unrecognized icon name Population
      • +100 Unrecognized icon name Morale , so Unrecognized icon name Approval is essentially fixed at 100%
      • Can immediately colonize Unrecognized icon name Aquatic World s and Unrecognized icon name Frozen World s
      • Can immediately colonize Unrecognized icon name Bacterial World s
        • +10% Unrecognized icon name Raw Production , +35% Unrecognized icon name Research , +20% Unrecognized icon name Influence Growth
        • +10% Unrecognized icon name Raw Production , +35% Unrecognized icon name Social Construction , +35% Unrecognized icon name Ship Construction
        • +25% Unrecognized icon name Research
        • +1 Unrecognized icon name Approval from trade routes for both parties
        • +2 Unrecognized icon name Trade Licenses Max
        • Enables Unrecognized icon name Trade Post and Unrecognized icon name Trade Center improvements
        • Enables Unrecognized icon name Acquisitions , Unrecognized icon name Marketing and Unrecognized icon name Galactic Facilitation technologies
        • 5 Unrecognized icon name Trade Licenses Max (without )

        +30% Unrecognized icon name All Weapons , +30% Unrecognized icon name Accuracy , +30% Unrecognized icon name Dodge when fighting Synthetic ships

          have +1 Area of Effect
      • Enemy ships have -1 Unrecognized icon name Moves in vicinity of a starbase
      • +1 Unrecognized icon name All Weapons in vicinity of a starbase have -50% Unrecognized icon name Hit Points , +1 Unrecognized icon name All Weapons , +9 Unrecognized icon name All Defenses , +2 Unrecognized icon name Sensor Power , +3 Unrecognized icon name Influence , +1 Unrecognized icon name Starbase Range
        • Enables Unrecognized icon name Xeno Geology , Unrecognized icon name Interstellar Navigation , Unrecognized icon name Stellar Forge , and Unrecognized icon name Territorial Reinforcement technologies

        +200% Unrecognized icon name Credits when trading with a civilization at war

        • +0.1 Unrecognized icon name Beam Damage Resistance , +0.1 Unrecognized icon name Kinetic Damage Resistance , +0.1 Unrecognized icon name Missile Damage Resistance
        • +10% Unrecognized icon name Beam Range , +10% Unrecognized icon name Kinetic Range , +10% Unrecognized icon name Missile Range
          enabled immediately
    • Starts with +2500 Unrecognized icon name Credits
      • not enabled immediately
  • Starts with only +1000 Unrecognized icon name Credits
  • +1 Unrecognized icon name Raw Production
    • +200% Unrecognized icon name Research
    • +200% Unrecognized icon name Social Construction
    • -50% Unrecognized icon name Ship Construction
    • -95% Unrecognized icon name Influence on planets

    +15 to dominant ideology upon conquering a planet

    Removed [ edit | edit source ]

    The following abilities were removed for the final release but still remain within the game's code.


    Using Imagination to Align the Heart & Mind

    Following a series of poems from the Solidarity Arts Fellows, the debut of the "Khayal-Kokoro Award" occurred with awards going to Nobuko Miyamoto and Assia Boundaoui. The Vigilant Love Instagram page explains the award's name. "Khayal in Arabic means imagination and in Urdu means idea. Kokoro in Japanese is the notion that one's heart, mind and spirit are aligned. The artists honored with this award capture our hearts, minds and spirits with their imaginative art and thoughts."

    Kathy Masaoka introduced Nobuko Miyamoto as her "role model and friend." Miyamoto was born in Los Angeles in 1939 and has had a long storied career as a singer, dancer and activist. She acted in the 1961 film "West Side Story," but really found her calling as a singer and activist in the Asian American movement. Miyamoto, Chris Iijima and Charlie Chin started a group called "Yellow Pearl" and they created what's considered the first Asian American folk album in 1973 with their record, "A Grain of Sand: Music for the Struggle by Asians in America." Smithsonian Folkways did a reissue of the record and released a new album of Miyamoto's, "120,000 Stories." Miyamoto's memoir "Not Yo' Butterfly" is being published by the University of California Press in June.

    Beginning in 2012, Miyamoto and the Grammy-Award winning band Quetzal have done a collaborative series of cross-cultural performances at the Japanese American Cultural and Community Center called FandangObon celebrating Mexican son jarocho (music with African roots), African music and dance, and also observing Obon, the Japanese day of honoring ancestors. The musician, author and fellow Angeleno native Rubén Guevara was asked by Miyamoto to write a poem for FandangObon. His cycle of haiku authored for the occasion capture the zeitgeist of both FandangObon and the trajectory of Nobuko's lifetime of work. Here are the last two stanzas:

    Fandango Obon
    Poly-cultural remix
    Jammin' a prayer

    Angelino souls
    Transforming ethnic worlds
    Birthing a new world

    Birthing a new world is what Nobuko Miyamoto has spent a lifetime doing. Guevara himself has an equally prolific track record. Though they are a few years apart, they grew up in the same neighborhood both attending Berendo Middle School around Olympic and Normandie, in a section of Koreatown that was once called "Uptown." "Nobuko is a national cultural treasure," Guevara says, "a warrior for cross cultural unity through the arts." In the process of accepting the award, Miyamoto mentioned her son Kamau who is Muslim and she lauded the Vigilant Love team for their important work of "bringing people together from different cultures."

    The second Khayal-Kokoro award was given to filmmaker Assia Boundaoui for her investigative documentary film, "The Feeling of Being Watched." Boundaoui was introduced by Shakeel Syed, one of the planning committee members and an important contributor to the Vigilant Love team. A winner of multiple film festival awards, Boundaoui's film examines rumors of surveillance in her Chicago neighborhood, uncovering one of the largest FBI Terrorism probes conducted before 9/11 and shows its lasting effect on her community.

    The film unveils the trauma and mental health impacts on communities experiencing state violence and surveillance. The links made in the film were perfectly aligned with the Vigilant Love Services Not Surveillance campaign. It is rare that Muslim American filmmakers are given space and praise for their powerful art — and even rarer when they focus on the harms of state violence.


    The Kodak Vigilant Six-20 medium format camera was manufactured between 1939-1949 and originally sold for US $38 (about US $662 in 2017).

    The Vigilant cameras came with one of at least four types of Kodak lenses. Three were Kodak Anastigmats (later called Anastons):

    F/4.5 105mm F/6.3 105mm F/8.8 100mm

    The top of the line Vigilant came with the excellent f/4.5-32 101mm Anastigmat Special (later called Anastar) lens in a Kodak Supermatic shutter (1-1/400 sec. plus B&T).

    There are also several shutter types including the Dakon, Diomatic, Kodamatic, and Supermatic.

    The Vigilant series shared a common body with the Kodak Monitor series. The main difference wast that the Vigilants had a simplified top and completely manual film advance you needed to watch the small red window in the back of the camera to make sure that you didn't advance past the next number else you risked overlapping exposures or losing a picture. The Vigilant's top plate contained the shutter release, a reverse Galilean viewfinder, the folding bed release, and the film advance knob. Cameras equipped with f/4.5 lenses also had a parallax adjustment on the viewfinder. An old style waist-level reflex viewfinder was located on the lens mount.


    The Vigilant Six-20 produced a 2¼ࡩ¼ inch image on 620 film. A version with less expensive lenses and shutters (and lacking the body mounted shutter release) was known as the Kodak Vigilant Junior Six-20.

    The Vigilant was also available in the 616 film format as the Vigilant Six-16 and the Vigilant Junior Six-16, making 2½ࡪ¼ inch image on 616 film. Shutter and lens combinations were the same as on the Vigilant Six-20, though the lenses had focal lengths in the 127-130mm range.


    Contents

    George was born in London at Norfolk House in St James's Square. He was the grandson of King George II, and the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. As he was born two months prematurely and thought unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker, who was both Rector of St James's and Bishop of Oxford. [4] One month later, he was publicly baptised at Norfolk House, again by Secker. His godparents were King Frederick I of Sweden (for whom Lord Baltimore stood proxy), his uncle Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha (for whom Lord Carnarvon stood proxy), and his great-aunt Sophia Dorothea, Queen in Prussia (for whom Lady Charlotte Edwin stood proxy). [5]

    Prince George grew into a healthy, reserved and shy child. The family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, were educated together by private tutors. Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight. [6] He was the first British monarch to study science systematically. [7]

    Apart from chemistry and physics, his lessons included astronomy, mathematics, French, Latin, history, music, geography, commerce, agriculture and constitutional law, along with sporting and social accomplishments such as dancing, fencing, and riding. His religious education was wholly Anglican. [7] At age 10, George took part in a family production of Joseph Addison's play Cato and said in the new prologue: "What, tho' a boy! It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, in England bred." [8] Historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear "to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated". [9]

    King George II disliked the Prince of Wales and took little interest in his grandchildren. However, in 1751 the Prince died unexpectedly from a lung injury at the age of 44, and his son George became heir apparent to the throne and inherited his father's title of Duke of Edinburgh. Now more interested in his grandson, three weeks later the King created George Prince of Wales. [10] [11]

    In the spring of 1756, as George approached his eighteenth birthday, the King offered him a grand establishment at St James's Palace, but George refused the offer, guided by his mother and her confidant, Lord Bute, who would later serve as Prime Minister. [12] George's mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her strict moral values. [13] [14]

    In 1759, George was smitten with Lady Sarah Lennox, sister of Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, but Lord Bute advised against the match and George abandoned his thoughts of marriage. "I am born for the happiness or misery of a great nation," he wrote, "and consequently must often act contrary to my passions." [15] Nevertheless, attempts by the King to marry George to Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel were resisted by him and his mother [16] Sophie married Frederick, Margrave of Bayreuth, instead. [17]

    The following year, at the age of 22, George succeeded to the throne when his grandfather, George II, died suddenly on 25 October 1760, two weeks before his 77th birthday. The search for a suitable wife intensified. On 8 September 1761 in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, the King married Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day. [d] A fortnight later on 22 September, both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George remarkably never took a mistress (in contrast with his grandfather and his sons), and the couple enjoyed a happy marriage until his mental illness struck. [1] [8]

    They had 15 children—nine sons and six daughters. In 1762, George purchased Buckingham House (on the site now occupied by Buckingham Palace) for use as a family retreat. [19] His other residences were Kew Palace and Windsor Castle. St James's Palace was retained for official use. He did not travel extensively and spent his entire life in southern England. In the 1790s, the King and his family took holidays at Weymouth, Dorset, [20] which he thus popularised as one of the first seaside resorts in England. [21]

    George, in his accession speech to Parliament, proclaimed: "Born and educated in this country, I glory in the name of Britain." [22] He inserted this phrase into the speech, written by Lord Hardwicke, to demonstrate his desire to distance himself from his German forebears, who were perceived as caring more for Hanover than for Britain. [23]

    Although his accession was at first welcomed by politicians of all parties, [e] the first years of his reign were marked by political instability, largely generated as a result of disagreements over the Seven Years' War. [25] George was also perceived as favouring Tory ministers, which led to his denunciation by the Whigs as an autocrat. [1] On his accession, the Crown lands produced relatively little income most revenue was generated through taxes and excise duties. George surrendered the Crown Estate to Parliamentary control in return for a civil list annuity for the support of his household and the expenses of civil government. [26]

    Claims that he used the income to reward supporters with bribes and gifts [27] are disputed by historians who say such claims "rest on nothing but falsehoods put out by disgruntled opposition". [28] Debts amounting to over £3 million over the course of George's reign were paid by Parliament, and the civil list annuity was increased from time to time. [29] He aided the Royal Academy of Arts with large grants from his private funds, [30] and may have donated more than half of his personal income to charity. [31] Of his art collection, the two most notable purchases are Johannes Vermeer's Lady at the Virginals and a set of Canalettos, but it is as a collector of books that he is best remembered. [32] The King's Library was open and available to scholars and was the foundation of a new national library. [33]

    In May 1762, the incumbent Whig government of Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, was replaced with one led by the Scottish Tory Lord Bute. Bute's opponents worked against him by spreading the calumny that he was having an affair with the King's mother, and by exploiting anti-Scottish prejudices amongst the English. [34] John Wilkes, a member of parliament, published The North Briton, which was both inflammatory and defamatory in its condemnation of Bute and the government. Wilkes was eventually arrested for seditious libel but he fled to France to escape punishment he was expelled from the House of Commons, and found guilty in absentia of blasphemy and libel. [35] In 1763, after concluding the Peace of Paris which ended the war, Lord Bute resigned, allowing the Whigs under George Grenville to return to power.

    Later that year, the Royal Proclamation of 1763 placed a limit upon the westward expansion of the American colonies. The Proclamation aimed to divert colonial expansion to the north (to Nova Scotia) and to the south (Florida). The Proclamation Line did not bother the majority of settled farmers, but it was unpopular with a vocal minority and ultimately contributed to conflict between the colonists and the British government. [36] With the American colonists generally unburdened by British taxes, the government thought it appropriate for them to pay towards the defence of the colonies against native uprisings and the possibility of French incursions. [f]

    The central issue for the colonists was not the amount of taxes but whether Parliament could levy a tax without American approval, for there were no American seats in Parliament. [39] The Americans protested that like all Englishmen they had rights to "no taxation without representation". In 1765, Grenville introduced the Stamp Act, which levied a stamp duty on every document in the British colonies in North America. Since newspapers were printed on stamped paper, those most affected by the introduction of the duty were the most effective at producing propaganda opposing the tax. [40]

    Meanwhile, the King had become exasperated at Grenville's attempts to reduce the King's prerogatives, and tried, unsuccessfully, to persuade William Pitt the Elder to accept the office of Prime Minister. [41] After a brief illness, which may have presaged his illnesses to come, George settled on Lord Rockingham to form a ministry, and dismissed Grenville. [42]

    Lord Rockingham, with the support of Pitt and the King, repealed Grenville's unpopular Stamp Act, but his government was weak and he was replaced in 1766 by Pitt, whom George created Earl of Chatham. The actions of Lord Chatham and George III in repealing the Act were so popular in America that statues of them both were erected in New York City. [43] Lord Chatham fell ill in 1767, and Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, took over the government, although he did not formally become Prime Minister until 1768. That year, John Wilkes returned to England, stood as a candidate in the general election, and came top of the poll in the Middlesex constituency. Wilkes was again expelled from Parliament. He was re-elected and expelled twice more, before the House of Commons resolved that his candidature was invalid and declared the runner-up as the victor. [44] Grafton's government disintegrated in 1770, allowing the Tories led by Lord North to return to power. [45]

    George was deeply devout and spent hours in prayer, [46] but his piety was not shared by his brothers. George was appalled by what he saw as their loose morals. In 1770, his brother Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, was exposed as an adulterer, and the following year Cumberland married a young widow, Anne Horton. The King considered her inappropriate as a royal bride: she was from a lower social class and German law barred any children of the couple from the Hanoverian succession. [47]

    George insisted on a new law that essentially forbade members of the Royal Family from legally marrying without the consent of the Sovereign. The subsequent bill was unpopular in Parliament, including among George's own ministers, but passed as the Royal Marriages Act 1772. Shortly afterwards, another of George's brothers, Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, revealed he had been secretly married to Maria, Countess Waldegrave, the illegitimate daughter of Sir Edward Walpole. The news confirmed George's opinion that he had been right to introduce the law: Maria was related to his political opponents. Neither lady was ever received at court. [47]

    Lord North's government was chiefly concerned with discontent in America. To assuage American opinion most of the custom duties were withdrawn, except for the tea duty, which in George's words was "one tax to keep up the right [to levy taxes]". [48] In 1773, the tea ships moored in Boston Harbor were boarded by colonists and the tea was thrown overboard, an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. In Britain, opinion hardened against the colonists, with Chatham now agreeing with North that the destruction of the tea was "certainly criminal". [49]

    With the clear support of Parliament, Lord North introduced measures, which were called the Intolerable Acts by the colonists: the Port of Boston was shut down and the charter of Massachusetts was altered so that the upper house of the legislature was appointed by the Crown instead of elected by the lower house. [50] Up to this point, in the words of Professor Peter Thomas, George's "hopes were centred on a political solution, and he always bowed to his cabinet's opinions even when sceptical of their success. The detailed evidence of the years from 1763 to 1775 tends to exonerate George III from any real responsibility for the American Revolution." [51] Though the Americans characterised George as a tyrant, in these years he acted as a constitutional monarch supporting the initiatives of his ministers. [52]

    The American War of Independence was the culmination of the civil and political American Revolution resulting from the American Enlightenment. Brought to a head over the lack of American representation in Parliament, which was seen as a denial of their rights as Englishmen and often popularly focused on direct taxes levied by Parliament on the colonies without their consent, the colonists resisted the imposition of direct rule after the Boston Tea Party. Creating self-governing provinces, they circumvented the British ruling apparatus in each colony by 1774. Armed conflict between British regulars and colonial militiamen broke out at the Battles of Lexington and Concord in April 1775. After petitions to the Crown for intervention with Parliament were ignored, the rebel leaders were declared traitors by the Crown and a year of fighting ensued. The colonies declared their independence in July 1776, listing twenty-seven grievances against the British king and legislature while asking the support of the populace. Among George's other offences, the Declaration charged, "He has abdicated Government here . He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people." The gilded equestrian statue of George III in New York was pulled down. [53] The British captured the city in 1776 but lost Boston, and the grand strategic plan of invading from Canada and cutting off New England failed with the surrender of British Lieutenant-General John Burgoyne following the battles of Saratoga. [54]

    George III is often accused of obstinately trying to keep Great Britain at war with the revolutionaries in America, despite the opinions of his own ministers. [55] In the words of the British historian George Otto Trevelyan, the King was determined "never to acknowledge the independence of the Americans, and to punish their contumacy by the indefinite prolongation of a war which promised to be eternal." [56] The King wanted to "keep the rebels harassed, anxious, and poor, until the day when, by a natural and inevitable process, discontent and disappointment were converted into penitence and remorse". [57] Later historians defend George by saying in the context of the times no king would willingly surrender such a large territory, [8] [58] and his conduct was far less ruthless than contemporary monarchs in Europe. [59] After Saratoga, both Parliament and the British people were in favour of the war recruitment ran at high levels and although political opponents were vocal, they remained a small minority. [8] [60] With the setbacks in America, Prime Minister Lord North asked to transfer power to Lord Chatham, whom he thought more capable, but George refused to do so he suggested instead that Chatham serve as a subordinate minister in North's administration, but Chatham refused to co-operate. He died later in the same year. [61] In early 1778, France (Britain's chief rival) signed a treaty of alliance with the United States and the conflict escalated. The United States and France were soon joined by Spain and the Dutch Republic, while Britain had no major allies of its own. Lord Gower and Lord Weymouth both resigned from the government. Lord North again requested that he also be allowed to resign, but he stayed in office at George III's insistence. [62] Opposition to the costly war was increasing, and in June 1780 contributed to disturbances in London known as the Gordon riots. [63]

    As late as the siege of Charleston in 1780, Loyalists could still believe in their eventual victory, as British troops inflicted heavy defeats on the Continental forces at the Battle of Camden and the Battle of Guilford Court House. [64] In late 1781, the news of Lord Cornwallis's surrender at the siege of Yorktown reached London Lord North's parliamentary support ebbed away and he resigned the following year. The King drafted an abdication notice, which was never delivered, [58] [65] finally accepted the defeat in North America, and authorised peace negotiations. The Treaties of Paris, by which Britain recognised the independence of the American states and returned Florida to Spain, were signed in 1782 and 1783. [66] When John Adams was appointed American Minister to London in 1785, George had become resigned to the new relationship between his country and the former colonies. He told Adams, "I was the last to consent to the separation but the separation having been made and having become inevitable, I have always said, as I say now, that I would be the first to meet the friendship of the United States as an independent power." [67]

    With the collapse of Lord North's ministry in 1782, the Whig Lord Rockingham became Prime Minister for the second time but died within months. The King then appointed Lord Shelburne to replace him. Charles James Fox, however, refused to serve under Shelburne, and demanded the appointment of William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland. In 1783, the House of Commons forced Shelburne from office and his government was replaced by the Fox–North Coalition. Portland became Prime Minister, with Fox and Lord North, as Foreign Secretary and Home Secretary respectively. [8]

    The King disliked Fox intensely, for his politics as well as his character he thought Fox was unprincipled and a bad influence on the Prince of Wales. [68] George III was distressed at having to appoint ministers not of his liking, but the Portland ministry quickly built up a majority in the House of Commons, and could not be displaced easily. He was further dismayed when the government introduced the India Bill, which proposed to reform the government of India by transferring political power from the East India Company to Parliamentary commissioners. [69] Although the King actually favoured greater control over the company, the proposed commissioners were all political allies of Fox. [70] Immediately after the House of Commons passed it, George authorised Lord Temple to inform the House of Lords that he would regard any peer who voted for the bill as his enemy. The bill was rejected by the Lords three days later, the Portland ministry was dismissed, and William Pitt the Younger was appointed Prime Minister, with Temple as his Secretary of State. On 17 December 1783, Parliament voted in favour of a motion condemning the influence of the monarch in parliamentary voting as a "high crime" and Temple was forced to resign. Temple's departure destabilised the government, and three months later the government lost its majority and Parliament was dissolved the subsequent election gave Pitt a firm mandate. [8]


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