Hunting Dog Mosaic

Hunting Dog Mosaic

African wild dog

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African wild dog, (Lycaon pictus), also called Cape hunting dog, African hunting dog, or hyena dog, wild African carnivore that differs from the rest of the members of the dog family (Canidae) in having only four toes on each foot. Its coat is short, sparse, and irregularly blotched with yellow, black, and white. The African wild dog is about 76–102 cm (30–41 inches) long, exclusive of its 31–41-cm tail, stands about 60 cm (24 inches) tall at the shoulder, and weighs about 16–23 kg (35–50 pounds).

The African wild dog is long-limbed with a broad flat head, a short muzzle, and large erect ears. It hunts in packs of 15 to 60 or more and is found in parts of Africa south and east of the Sahara, particularly in grasslands. It usually preys on antelopes and some larger game but has been hunted in settled regions for the damage it sometimes does to domestic livestock. The average number of young per litter appears to be about six gestation periods of about 60 and 80 days have been noted. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species classifies the African wild dog as endangered.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.

Dogs in Art History

For thousands of years, artists have shown their admiration and respect for canines by painting and carving their likenesses. They even show up in ancient art. In Pompeii, a dog mosaic was found in the House of the Tragic Poet. The structure was built in its current form near the end of the first century BC, meaning that this artwork of a fierce canine had been around for at least as long. The words at the bottom, Cave Canem, translate to &ldquobeware of the dog.&rdquo Despite that warning, it&rsquos believed that this was to alert a visitor that there were dogs present in the house.

“Cave Canem” at House of the Tragic Poet

Dog art was also found in the first century AD. One charming example includes a pair of canines found near Civita Lavinia, Italy in 1774. A painter and art dealer named Gavin Hamilton had excavated a place aptly-named Dog Mountain and discovered, among other things, a marble portrait of two hounds. According to The British Museum, it&rsquos not possible to date these sculptures, but they were produced sometime between 1 AD to 199 AD.

Marble statue of a pair of dogs, 1 AD – 199 AD. (Photo: The British Museum)

Dogs are known for their companionship, and it&rsquos a trait that&rsquos well documented in art from the Renaissance. Royalty and other upper-classmen had their portraits immortalized through painting, and many include a dog at their side (or on their lap). Portrait of a Noblewoman painted by Lavinia Fontana around 1580 depicts a young Bolognese noblewoman who just got married. Clad in rich textiles and exquisite jewels, the dark background and deep red dress makes her tiny dog the stand out of this piece.

“Portrait of a Noblewoman” by Lavinia Fontana, ca. 1580. (Photo: National Museum of Women in the Arts)

While many pups got to pose for regal portraits, the Renaissance also depicted dogs at work. Pieter Bruegel the Elder famously captured this in his iconic painting, Hunters in the Snow. The piece features two men who are followed by their pack of loyal dogs. Although the hunters are the intended focus of the piece, it&rsquos the canines who convey the most emotion. Having just returned from an unsuccessful hunt, they appear unhappy with their heads in shame.

“The Hunters in the Snow” by Pieter Bruegel the Elder, 1565. (Photo: Kunsthistorisches Museum)

Beyond the Renaissance and during the 18th century, dog breeds became standardized. This lead to dog portraits, where the animals were the stars of the piece. Still life paintings are a long-standing tradition in art, and Paul Gauguin puts a twist on this with his 1888 piece called Still Life with Three Puppies. A departure from naturalistic depiction, the painting is said to be inspired by Japanese prints and children&rsquos book illustrations.

“Still Life with Three Puppies” by Paul Gauguin, 1888. (Photo: MoMA)

Shortly after Gauguin's piece surfaced, one of the most well-known collection of paintings, prominently featuring dogs, came to be&mdashDogs Playing Poker. This iconic series by American painter Cassius Marcellus Coolidge began with Poker Game in 1894, which then led to a set of 16 oil paintings commissioned for a cigar ad campaign in 1903, and a final painting completed in 1910. They each feature a group of dogs playing a game of poker. Collectively, these paintings became incredibly well-known in the United States, and have continued to pop up for decades in contemporary culture. It cemented dogs as viable art subjects in the modern era.

“A Friend in Need” from the “Dogs Playing Poker” series by Cassius Marcellus Coolidge, 1903

This shift from sidekick to star has lead to a variety of dog art, from realism to abstraction. When it comes to contemporary works, Jeff Koons has created some of the most famous dog art of all. His larger-than-life Balloon Dog sculptures continue to be a hit and have inspired home decor. In addition to that iconic pop art, he also created Puppy in 1995. Standing nearly 41 feet tall, the giant sculpture is a flowering representation of a pup&mdashliterally. It&rsquos still on view at its permanent home at the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao.

The Gruesome Blood Sports of Shakespearean England

Near the end of his classic 1606 play Macbeth, William Shakespeare included a scene in which the doomed title character says that his enemies, “have tied me to a stake I cannot fly, / But, bear-like, I must fight the course.” The line might seem inconsequential to modern readers, but for the audiences that watched the Bard’s plays 400 years ago, it would have been an obvious reference to one of the most popular pastimes of the day: bear-baiting. In fact, many of the same Londoners who flocked to Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre were also patrons of the nearby �r Gardens,” where bears, dogs, bulls, chimps and other creatures routinely fought to the death in front of roaring crowds.

Along with the theater, animal blood sports were among the most beloved entertainments of 16th and 17th century England. In London, the shows took place in the seamy Bankside district, which was home to several purpose-built arenas. “There,” wrote one 1639 visitor, “you may hear the shouting of men, the barking of dogs, the growling of the bears, and the bellowing of the bulls, mixed in a wild but natural harmony.”

By far the most popular sport was bear-baiting. In this brutal test, a bear would be led into a pit and then chained to a stake by its leg or neck. As spectators cheered and placed bets, a pack of dogs—usually bulldogs or mastiffs—would be unleashed into the arena to torment and attack the bear. “It was a very pleasant sport to see,” the Elizabethan court official Robert Laneham wrote of a 1575 bear-baiting. “To see the bear, with his pink eyes, tearing after his enemies’ approach…with biting, with clawing, with roaring, with tossing and tumbling, he would work and wind himself from them. And when he was loose, to shake his ears twice or thrice with the blood and the slather hanging about his physiognomy.”

Bear baiting in London in the 1820s. (Credit: Hulton-Deutsch Collection / Getty Images)

The gory spectacle typically continued until the bears had killed several dogs or been bitten into submission. Still, since bears had to be imported from abroad at great cost, steps were usually taken to ensure that they didn’t die in the ring. After several bouts, some of the animals even became minor celebrities. London’s bear pits were home to creatures with nicknames such as “Ned Whiting,” “Harry Hunks” and 𠇋lind Bess.” Another famous bear, the great “Sackerson,” was even referenced by name in Shakespeare’s play The Merry Wives of Windsor.

Bear-baiting in England dates back to medieval times, but it first became big business in the mid-1500s, when impresarios such as Philip Henslowe established dedicated animal fighting venues on the south bank of the Thames. The noisy, blood-soaked arenas were hugely popular, and they were later considered the main competition to the plays put on at theaters such as the Rose and the Globe. Even after Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe and Ben Johnson ushered in a golden age of English drama, audiences of all social classes continued to relish the visceral thrills of the bear pits. Queen Elizabeth I was said to be a bear-baiting fan, and once organized an exhibition for the visiting French ambassador. King James I, meanwhile, was such an aficionado that he hosted private shows involving polar bears and lions borrowed from the Tower of London’s animal menagerie.

Along with bear-baiting, the English arenas also hosted a range of animal fights that the scholar Stephen Dickey once called a �rnival of cruelty.” There were rat-baitings, badger-baitings, dogfights, cockfights and other stomach-turning displays such as staged whippings of blind bears. Bull-baiting, in which dogs were set upon chained male cattle, was particularly popular. Audiences delighted in watching the bulls throw the attack dogs into the air with their horns, and it was widely believed that baiting helped make the bull’s beef more tender and safe for consumption. Perhaps the strangest show of all involved a chimpanzee, or “jack-an-apes,” which would be strapped onto the back of a horse and then set loose into the ring to be chased by a pack of snarling dogs. An Italian merchant who once witnessed the spectacle wrote that, “It is wonderful to see the horse galloping along, kicking up the ground and champing at the bit, with the monkey holding very tightly to the saddle, and crying out frequently when he is bitten by the dogs.”

Bear-baiting in the 16th century. (Credit: Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

While many visitors to the Bear Gardens considered the violence to be exhilarating and even funny, the blood sports also won their fair share of critics. Puritan ministers and other clergymen denounced the arenas as dens of idleness and vice, and it was said that the games encouraged gambling, drunkenness and prostitution. “There are as many civil religious men here, as there are saints in hell,” one critic wrote of the bear pits. Others were more disturbed by the violence being perpetrated against helpless animals. After a visit to the Bear Gardens in 1670, the English diarist John Evelyn pronounced the games a “rude and dirty pastime” that reveled in �rbarous cruelties.”

Despite the protests of critics, England’s animal blood sports continued unabated through most of the 17th century. London’s main bear-baiting arena was briefly closed in 1656 as part of a moral crackdown orchestrated by Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell, but it wasn’t long before the games had roared back to life. By 1662, a new Bear Garden had been built that featured an onsite pub as well as special windows that allowed patrons to watch the animal baitings while they ate and guzzled ale.

It wasn’t until the 1700s that the blood sports finally fell out of favor. By then, shifting attitudes about animal cruelty had led many to write the games off as a vile and despicable practice. Animal baiting was later banned outright in England following an 1835 act of parliament, but a few remnants of its history have survived to today. Two streets in South London are still called �r Gardens” and �r Lane” after the gruesome displays that once took place in the area. The iconic English bulldog, meanwhile, earned its name from its past use as an attack dog in bull and bear-baiting shows.

Description and Behavior of the Beast

The Beast was consistently described by eyewitnesses as something other than a typical wolf. It was as large as a calf or sometimes a horse. Its coat was reddish gray with a long, strong panther-like tail. The head and legs were short-haired and the color of a deer. It had a black stripe on its back and “talons” on its feet. Many drawings of the Beast at the time endow it with lupine characteristics.

Witnesses described the Beast as an ambush hunter which stalked its prey and seized it by the throat. The wounds found on the bodies were typically to the head and limbs with the remains of 16 victims reportedly decapitated. The creature prowled in the evenings and in the mornings.

Length: Short
Characteristics: Flat
Colors: Chestnut red, black, black and tan, brindle, all with white feet, chest, and tail tip
Overall Grooming Needs: Low

AKC Classification: Hound
UKC Classification: Sighthounds and Pariahs
Prevalence: So-so

Basenjis are one of the smallest hounds, ranging in height from 16 to 17 inches and in weight from 22 to 24 pounds (10 to 11 kilograms).

They have large erect ears and tight forehead wrinkles when alert. Some people feel the large ears may help to dissipate heat. The breed's high head carriage, long legs, short back and tightly curled tail all contribute to the square outline.

The long legs relative to the overall size contribute to the basenji's speed and agility. While known as a barkless dog, the basenji does "yodel" and growl, so it is not mute.

The coat is uniformly short and smooth. Colors can be red, black, black and tan or brindle, all with white markings. White feet and legs are common, often with a blaze and a collar as well.


The basenji can be an aloof dog very affectionate with his family, but not outgoing to strangers. They originally hunted in packs and are usually good with other dogs if socialized while young. However, some can be argumentative with other basenjis.

Basenjis tend to be clever dogs, but not easy to train. They need creative, patient handling to bring out their best qualities. As mentioned, they do not bark, but the yodeling certainly makes quite a bit of noise. If left to their own devices they can be chewers and diggers.

Basenji breeders and owners often refer to them as "catlike," as they do a great deal of licking to groom and are quiet. They also seem to like climbing up onto high places perhaps to survey their kingdoms from there.

Living With:

Basenjis are active dogs that need and enjoy a good romp or run every day. They like doing agility and running lure courses. Basenjis are not used for hunting much anymore, but make very nice family dogs and live to about 13 years of age or so.

Basenjis can be fiercely protective of their families. They need plenty of early socialization to other people to be ideal companions. An unusual trait in basenjis is that the females almost always only have one heat period per year and occurring between August and November. And of course, they make their famous "yodeling" sound.

Basenjis are extremely easy to groom and keep clean with a quick swipe with a cloth or brush once or twice weekly. Basenjis will spend much of their time grooming and carefully licking their coats just like a cat.


Basenjis are ancient dogs tracing their lineage from pariah dogs to the Egyptians and then to hunting dogs for the tribes in the Congo. Running in silent packs (they do make noise, but not regular barking), the Basenjis often wore bells to alert their human partners to their whereabouts in the deep jungle. They were, and still are, renowned for their keen eyesight and excellent sense of smell.

The basenji got its name from a Mrs. Burn in England around 1936. Known until then as the Congo dog or Congo derrier, the word "basenji" means "dog of the bush" in that region of Africa. The breed has been placed in the hound category as it is clearly a hunting dog, but whether it truly belongs with the sighthounds or the scenthounds is still being debated. Basenjis are allowed in lure coursing (a sighthound sport) but some people feel they might even belong in the terrier group.

In the 1980s several basenjis were imported to the United States from Zaire and added to the AKC gene pool to help combat some health problems. These new additions also introduced the brindle color pattern to the western basenji. Basenjis are considered rather primitive dogs genetically and developmentally. Unlike most domestic dogs, they have only one estrus season per year.

Sporting Group

Naturally active and alert, Sporting dogs make likeable, well-rounded companions. First developed to work closely with hunters to locate and/or retrieve quarry. There are four basic types of Sporting dogs spaniels, pointers, retrievers and setters. Known for their superior instincts in wate…

Naturally active and alert, Sporting dogs make likeable, well-rounded companions. First developed to work closely with hunters to locate and/or retrieve quarry. There are four basic types of Sporting dogs spaniels, pointers, retrievers and setters. Known for their superior instincts in water and woods, many of these breeds enjoy hunting and other field activities. Many of them, especially the water-retrieving breeds, have well –insulated water repellant coats, which are quite resilient to the elements. Thinking of getting one? Just realize that most require regular, invigorating exercise.

Length: Short
Characteristics: Flat
Colors: Solid golden rust
Overall Grooming Needs: Low

AKC Classification: Sporting
UKC Classification: Gun Dog
Prevalence: Common

Vizslas are medium-sized dogs weighing 45-65 lbs.

A male vizsla is 22 to 24 inches at the shoulder females are smaller at 21 to 23 inches tall. Their bodies are muscular and well proportioned. Vizslas generally mature at 1 or 2 years, although they reach their full size around 6 to 8 months.

The vizsla coat is short, smooth and dense with no undercoat. Considered "wash and wear," vizslas require little more than a quick rubdown with a rubber curry brush. The color is a solid golden rust (also called russet).


Vizslas are active dogs, requiring a high level of physical activity, given their hunting history. They do not make good kennel dogs and prefer being with their owners. They are highly intelligent and need activities to keep them occupied to prevent destructive behavior such as chewing and digging.

Living With:

Vizslas need a large amount of interaction with people. They tolerate other dogs and cats well if properly socialized. Other pets, such as rodents, birds, and reptiles, should be kept away from the vizslas. Because of their hunting heritage, they are liable to kill such animals.

Vizslas make good watchdogs and generally do not bark excessively. Well-socialized dogs are friendly to strangers, unless threatened. Vizslas may suffer separation anxiety and fear of loud noises such as thunderstorms.

Vizslas are ideal for owners who want a medium-sized, active dog for hunting, hiking, and other outdoor activities. Vizslas do not do well left alone for long periods.

Vizslas typically live from 10 to 15 years.


The vizsla or Hungarian pointer has an ancient history. The dog of the Magyar barbarian tribes that invaded central Europe during the Dark Ages, the vizsla fulfilled the role of companion and hunter to the Magyar warriors. Early 10th century etchings show a Magyar warrior and a dog resembling a vizsla. The breed was readily adopted by Hungarian nobility.

The vizsla nearly became extinct after World War I, but was preserved by vizsla fanciers. In 1945 during World War II, many Hungarians fled the Russian occupation, taking their vizslas with them. Vizslas re-appeared in the 1950s and the breed was recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1960.

The vizsla is an active sporting breed. It is an excellent bird hunter as well as a companion.

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Ancient Dog Skull Shows Early Pet Domestication

33,000-year-old fossil suggests dogs arose in multiple places, study says.

It took 33,000 years, but one Russian dog is finally having its day.

The fossilized remains of a canine found in the 1970s in southern Siberia's Altay Mountains (see map) is the earliest well-preserved pet dog, new research shows.

Dogs—the oldest domesticated animals—are common in the fossil record up to 14,000 years ago. But specimens from before about 26,500 years ago are very rare. This is likely due to the onset of the last glacial maximum, when the ice sheets are at their farthest extent during an ice age.

With such a sparse historical record, scientists have been mostly in the dark as to how and when wolves evolved into dogs, a process that could have happened in about 50 to a hundred years.

"That's why our find is very important—we have a very lucky case," said study co-author Yaroslav Kuzmin, a scientist at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Novosibirsk.

In the case of the Russian specimen, the animal was just on the cusp of becoming a fully domesticated dog when its breed died out.

Dogs Arose at Multiple Sites?

Kuzmin and colleagues recently used radiocarbon dating to examine the skull and jaw of the Russian dog in three independent laboratories. Each lab confirmed the fossil's age at around 33,000 years old.

Burnt twigs also found at the site, known as Razboinichya Cave, suggest that hunter-gatherers used the space for something, and it's likely the dog was their pet before its death from unknown causes, Kuzmin said.

Cold temperatures and nonacidic soil in the cave likely kept the dog's remains from completely decaying, he added.

The team compared the Russian dog fossils with the bones of wild wolves, modern wolves, domesticated dogs, and early doglike canids that lived before 26,500 years ago.

The results showed that the dog—which probably looked like a modern-day Samoyed—most closely resembled fully domesticated dogs from Greenland in size and shape. That's not to say the two dog types are related, though, since the new study didn't run DNA analysis.

Because it wasn't fully domesticated, the Russian dog retained some traits from its ancestors—namely wolf-like teeth. But the animal bore no other resemblance to ancient or modern wolves or to dog breeds from elsewhere in Russia, Kuzmin and colleagues found.

The discovery suggests that this dog began its association with humans independently from other breeds, which would mean that dog domestication didn't have a single place of origin—contrary to some DNA evidence, the study said.

Curious Wolves Went to the Dogs

In general, dogs likely became domesticated when curious wolves began to hang around Stone Age people, who left butchered food remnants littering their camps, according to study co-author Susan Crockford, an anthropologist and zooarchaeologist at the University of Victoria in Canada.

This phenomenon occurred in Europe, the Middle East, and China, according to the study, published July 28 in the journal PLoS ONE.

Animals that were more comfortable around humans underwent changes in their growth rates—probably regulated by hormones—that eventually changed their reproductive patterns, sizes, and shapes, turning them into dogs, Crockford said by email.

For example, dogs became smaller, developed wider skulls, and gave birth to bigger litters than wolves, she said.

"The somewhat curious and less fearful 'first founders' became even more so as they interbred amongst themselves," Crockford said.

Dog Domestication a Chaotic Process

Yet the process of dog domestication in Europe and Asia was chaotic, with many new breeds evolving and then dying out, study co-author Kuzmin noted.

The Russian dog was lost, for example, possibly because the advancing glacial age made hunter-gatherers even more mobile, since they had to range farther to find food.

Some experts have theorized that wolves have to stay in the same place for several decades before they evolve into fully domesticated dogs, Kuzmin said.

Indeed, "domestication is a process as opposed to an event," R. Lee Lyman, an anthropologist at the University of Missouri, Columbia, said by email. "It takes time for sufficient genetic change to occur for a population to evolve from a wild ancestral species into a descendant domestic species."

(See National Geographic fans' dog pictures.)

What's more, "not every evolutionary change is successful in the sense of [a] daughter population diverging from its ancestral lineage and producing a new, distinct lineage or species, domestic or not."

The study, Lyman said, "underscores [these] two important facts that archaeologists sometimes fail to appreciate."

Why Sport Hunting Is Cruel and Unnecessary

Although it was a crucial part of humans’ survival 100,000 years ago, hunting is now nothing more than a violent form of recreation that the vast majority of hunters do not need for subsistence. 1 Hunting has contributed to the extinction of animal species all over the world, including the Tasmanian tiger and the great auk. 2,3

Less than 5 percent of the U.S. population (13.7 million people) hunts, yet hunting is permitted in many wildlife refuges, national forests, and state parks and on other public lands. 4 Almost 40 percent of hunters slaughter and maim millions of animals on public land every year, and by some estimates, poachers kill just as many animals illegally. 5,6

Pain and Suffering
Many animals endure prolonged, painful deaths when they are injured but not killed by hunters. A study of 80 radio-collared white-tailed deer found that of the 22 deer who had been shot with “traditional archery equipment,” 11 were wounded but not recovered by hunters. 7 Twenty percent of foxes who have been wounded by hunters are shot again. Just 10 percent manage to escape, but “starvation is a likely fate” for them, according to one veterinarian. 8 A South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks biologist estimates that more than 3 million wounded ducks go “unretrieved” every year. 9 A British study of deer hunting found that 11 percent of deer who’d been killed by hunters died only after being shot two or more times and that some wounded deer suffered for more than 15 minutes before dying. 10

Hunting disrupts migration and hibernation patterns and destroys families. For animals such as wolves, who mate for life and live in close-knit family units, hunting can devastate entire communities. The stress that hunted animals suffer—caused by fear and the inescapable loud noises and other commotion that hunters create—also severely compromises their normal eating habits, making it hard for them to store the fat and energy that they need in order to survive the winter.

Nature Takes Care of Its Own
The delicate balance of ecosystems ensures their survival—if they are left unaltered. Natural predators help maintain this balance by killing only the sickest and weakest individuals. Hunters, however, kill any animal whose head they would like to hang over the fireplace—including large, healthy animals who are needed to keep the population strong. Elephant poaching is believed to have increased the number of tuskless animals in Africa, and in Canada, hunting has caused bighorn sheep’s horn size to fall by 25 percent in the last 40 years. Nature magazine reports that “the effect on the populations’ genetics is probably deeper.” 11

Even when unusual natural occurrences cause overpopulation, natural processes work to stabilize the group. Starvation and disease can be tragic, but they are nature’s ways of ensuring that healthy, strong animals survive and maintain the strength of the rest of their herd or group. Shooting an animal because he or she might starve or get sick is arbitrary and destructive.

Another problem with hunting involves the introduction of exotic “game” animals who, if they’re able to escape and thrive, pose a threat to native wildlife and established ecosystems.

Canned Cruelty
Most hunting occurs on private land, where laws that protect wildlife are often inapplicable or difficult to enforce. On private lands that are set up as for-profit hunting reserves or game ranches, hunters can pay to kill native and exotic species in “canned hunts.” These animals may be native to the area, raised elsewhere and brought in, or purchased from individuals who are trafficking in unwanted or surplus animals from zoos and circuses. The animals are hunted and killed for the sole purpose of providing hunters with a “trophy.”

Canned hunts are big business—there are an estimated 1,000 game preserves in the U.S., with some 5,000 so-called “exotic ranchers” in North America. 12,13 Ted Turner, the country’s largest private landowner, allows hunters to pay thousands of dollars to kill bison, deer, African antelopes, and turkeys on his 2 million acres. 14

Animals on canned-hunting ranches are often accustomed to humans and are usually unable to escape from the enclosures that they are confined to, which range in size from just a few yards to thousands of acres. Most of these ranches operate on a “no-kill, no-pay” policy, so it is in owners’ best interests to ensure that clients get what they came for. Owners do this by offering guides who are familiar with animals’ locations and habits, permitting the use of dogs, and supplying “feeding stations” that lure unsuspecting animals to food while hunters lie in wait.

While many states have limited or banned canned hunts, there are no federal laws regulating the practice at this time. 15

Other Victims
Hunting accidents destroy property and injure or kill horses, cows, dogs, cats, hikers, and other hunters. In 2006, then–Vice President Dick Cheney famously shot a friend while hunting quail on a canned hunting preserve. 16 According to the National Shooting Sports Foundation, thousands of injuries are attributed to hunting in the U.S. every year—and that number only includes incidents involving humans. 17

The bears, cougars, deer, foxes, and other animals who are chased, trapped, and even killed by dogs during (sometimes illegal) hunts aren’t the only ones to suffer from this variant of the “sport.” Dogs used for hunting are often kept chained or penned and are denied routine veterinary care such as vaccines and heartworm medication. Some are lost during hunts and never found, whereas others are turned loose at the end of hunting season to fend for themselves and die of starvation or get struck by vehicles.

What You Can Do
Before you support a “wildlife” or “conservation” group, ask about its position on hunting. Groups such as the National Wildlife Federation, the National Audubon Society, the Sierra Club, the Izaak Walton League, the Wilderness Society, and the World Wildlife Fund are pro–sport-hunting, or at the very least, they do not oppose it.

To combat hunting in your area, post “no hunting” signs on your land, join or form an anti-hunting organization, protest organized hunts, and spread deer repellent or human hair (from barber shops) near hunting areas. Call 1-800-628-7275 to report poachers in national parks to the National Parks and Conservation Association. Educate others about hunting. Encourage your legislators to enact or enforce wildlife-protection laws, and insist that nonhunters be equally represented on the staffs of wildlife agencies.

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